Mechanical Stimulation Shapes the Immunoregulatory Properties of Dendritic Cells

Zahraa Alraies, Claudia A. Rivera, Maria-Graciela Delgado, Doriane Sanséau, Mathieu Maurin, Aline Yatim, Pablo Saez, Alice Williart, Matthieu Gratia, Nilushi S. De Silva, Aurélie Moreau, Benoit Albaud, Patricia Legoix, Hideki Nakano, Donald N Cook, Toby Lawrence, Nicolas Manel, Hélène D. Moreau, Guilherme P.F. Nader, Matthieu Piel, Ana-Maria Lennon-Duménil

AbstractMotile cells such as immune and cancer cells experience large deformation events that result from the physical constraints they encounter while migrating within tissues or circulating between organs. It has become increasingly clear that these cells can survive and adapt to these changes in cell shape using dedicated shape sensing pathways. However, how shape sensing impacts their function and fate remains largely unknown. Here we identify a shape sensing mechanism that couples cell motility to expression of CCR7, the chemokine receptor that guides immune cells to lymph nodes. We found that this mechanism is controlled by the lipid metabolism enzyme cPLA2, requires an intact nuclear envelop and exhibits an exquisitely sensitive activation threshold tuned by ARP2/3 and its inhibitor Arpin. We further show that shape sensing through the ARP2/3-cPLA2axis controls Ikkβ-NFκB-dependent transcriptional reprogramming of dendritic cells, which instructs them to migrate to lymph nodes in an immunoregulatory state compatible with their homeostatic tolerogenic function. These results highlight that the cell shape changes experienced by motile cells evolving within the complex environment of tissues can dictate their behavior and fate.