Histone modifications during the life cycle of the brown alga Ectocarpus

Nom de la revue
Genome Biology
Simon Bourdareau, Leila Tirichine, Bérangère Lombard, Damarys Loew, Delphine Scornet, Yue Wu, Susana M. Coelho, J. Mark Cock
Abstract

AbstractBackgroundBrown algae evolved complex multicellularity independently of the animal and land plant lineages and are the third most developmentally complex phylogenetic group on the planet. An understanding of developmental processes in this group is expected to provide important insights into the evolutionary events necessary for the emergence of complex multicellularity. Here, we focus on mechanisms of epigenetic regulation involving post-translational modifications of histone proteins.ResultsA total of 47 histone post-translational modifications are identified, including a novel mark H2AZR38me1, butEctocarpuslacks both H3K27me3 and the major polycomb complexes. ChIP-seq identifies modifications associated with transcription start sites and gene bodies of active genes and with transposons. H3K79me2 exhibits an unusual pattern, often marking large genomic regions spanning several genes. Transcription start sites of closely spaced, divergently transcribed gene pairs share a common nucleosome-depleted region and exhibit shared histone modification peaks. Overall, patterns of histone modifications are stable through the life cycle. Analysis of histone modifications at generation-biased genes identifies a correlation between the presence of specific chromatin marks and the level of gene expression.ConclusionsThe overview of histone post-translational modifications in the brown alga presented here will provide a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of chromatin modifications in the regulation of brown algal genomes.